BP+ Education

Central Blood Pressure

Central blood pressure is what the heart works against. It is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk.

Central Blood Pressure

Central blood pressure is the pressure in the aorta, which is the large artery into which the heart pumps. The term 'central blood pressure' usually refers to the pressure in the aorta near the heart.

How is central blood pressure different from normal blood pressure? Normally, blood pressure is measured in the upper arm, which is a 'peripheral' artery. Peripheral blood pressure is usually higher than central blood pressure due to the peripheral site being closer to locations from which echoes reverberate. The degree to which the peripheral blood pressure is higher than central blood pressure depends partly on the stiffness of the arteries.

Why is central blood pressure important? Central pressure has been shown to more strongly relate to vascular disease and outcome than traditional upper arm blood pressure [1-3]. It also can distinguish between the effects of different hypertension medications when upper arm blood pressure and pulse wave velocity do not . Central blood pressure is the pressure that the heart has to pump against to get blood to flow to the rest of the body. Higher central blood pressures mean that the heart must work harder to do its job. This can eventually lead to heart failure. Central blood pressure also determines the pressure in the blood vessels feeding the brain. If central pressure is too high, it may cause aneurysms and strokes.

Augmentation Index

The augmentation index is a ratio calculated from the blood pressure waveform, it is a measure of wave reflection and arterial stiffness. Augmentation index is commonly accepted as a measure of the enhancement (augmentation) of central aortic pressure by a reflected pulse wave (shown in green in the graph).

Augmentation Index

Arterial Stiffness

How hard are your arteries? Arterial stiffness can be managed through exercise, medicines and food.

Arterial Stiffness

Arrhythmias and Heart Rhythm

BP+ provides a graphical rhythm strip that makes identifying heart rhythm anomalies easy.

Vascular Age

Are your arteries older than you? Vascular age indicates premature damage to your arteries and is a good indicator of cardiovascular risk.

Managing High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure medicines work in different ways. What is appropriate for your situation?

Repeatability of BP+ measurements

BP+ measurements are independent of operator technique and exhibit excellent intra-session and inter-day repeatability.

Reviews in Hypertension Research

This article offers brief reviews of published papers in field of Hypertension Research including:

Where available, links are provided to on-line publications.

BP+ and Exercise

Aerobic exercise is a great way to manage arterial health, and BP+ is a great way to manage your exercise programme.


Since 2000 our technology has been trialed in environments ranging from the operating room, to the clinic, to the leisure centre. In addition, we pride ourselves on "transparent-box" technology through an active program of theoretical research into the physical systems involved.